Monotheistic Religions


Objectives:

1. I can define Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
2. I can explain key beliefs of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
3. I can compare and contrast Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

Wednesday, January 4, 2017 - Monday, January 9, 2017


First Step - Complete Activities #1 - #6

Create a foldable. Place the three objectives, and their answers into the foldable.
Activity #1 - Define Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.


Activity #2 - Write four beliefs for each religion: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.


Activity #3 - Use a three-circle venn diagram to compare and contrast Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
Image result for judaism, christianity, islam similarities
Image result for judaism, christianity, islam similarities



Image result for judaism, christianity, islam similarities
Image result for judaism, christianity, islam similarities

Activity #4 -

Complete the mapskills activity on the map.

1.Abraham, the founder of Judaism, left the city of Ur about 1800 BCE, and traveled to Canaan, the land of Judea on the map. Draw a red line from Ur to Babylon, then continue the line going above the name of the Euphrates River, then bring the line down to the name Judea. Write the name Abraham under the city of Ur. Highlight Ur and Judea.2.Moses, a Hebrew/Jew, grew-up an Egyptian prince, in the 1200s BCE, took the enslaved from Egypt back to Canaan, the land of Judea on the map. Draw a green line from Egypt, to the Sinai Peninsula, and then to Judea. Write the name Moses under the name of Egypt. During these travels, Moses received God’s Ten Commandments, or religious laws, on Mt. Sinai. Write the name Ten Commandments under the name Sinai Peninsula. Highlight Egypt and Sinai Peninsula.3.Check-In with Ms. Gregory.

Map-Abraham-Journey.jpg
exodus-map.gif
Activity #5 -
Complete the mapskills activity on the map.

1.The city of Jerusalem is important to ALL three of the religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Jerusalem is where Abraham was going to sacrifice his son Isaiah to show is commitment to God; Jerusalem is where Jesus was crucified; Jerusalem is where Muhammad ascended into Heaven. All three religions have fought wars over control of the city, and unfortunately, struggles continue today with the people living in and around Jerusalem. Highlight Jerusalem. Draw the symbol for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam beside the name of Jerusalem.2.By the 600s AD, the religion of Islam emerged, on the Arabian Peninsula. Mohammad received God’s messages in the city of Mecca. He was eventually run-out and moved to the city of Medina for 20 years. Mohammad gained many followers who conquered the city of Mecca, and establishing the religion of Islam. Highlight the cities of Mecca and Medina. Write the name Mohammad, in blue, by the two cities.
Check-in with Ms. Gregory.
Image result for map of islam on arabian peninsula
Image result for map of islam on arabian peninsula

Activity #6 -
Complete the mapskills activity on the map.
1. The Roman Empire lasted from the 753 BCE to 473 AD. The Romans were polytheistic for many years, until the Roman Emperor allowed Christians to have freedom of worship. The city of Rome quickly became the center of Christianity, while the city of Byzantium, changed to Constantinople, also became a Christian city. In 1453 AD, a Muslim army conquered Constantinople, and became a Muslim city. Highlight Rome and Byzantium/Constantinople. Draw the Christian symbol by Rome, and draw both the Christian symbol and Muslim Symbol by the city of Byzantium/Constantinople.
2. Check-in with Ms. Gregory.

Image result for map of christianity in roman empire
Image result for map of christianity in roman empire

Image result for map of christianity in roman empire
Image result for map of christianity in roman empire


Second Step - Watch the three videos located just below. You need to go to the cloud first, and then copy and past the link into DiscoveryEducation.com.

Videos on the three monotheistic religions from Discovery Education.com


Discovery Education.Com - Lets Look At World Religions: Judaism. Copy and paste the link into Discovery Ed.
https://app.discoveryeducation.com/learn/videos/ac0ad99f-dc2d-4301-bca9-3038aba4b681?hasLocalHost=true


Discovery Education.Com - Lets Look At World Religions: Christianity. Copy and past the link to Discovery Ed.
https://app.discoveryeducation.com/learn/videos/e334ab01-c152-4588-8409-9b7d412200ba?hasLocalHost=true


Discovery Education.Com - Lets Look At World Religions: Islam. Copy and paste the link into Discovery Ed.
https://app.discoveryeducation.com/learn/videos/cac3a3ef-9faa-4df7-8f7f-43d0dfd4486f?hasLocalHost=true

Where does Judaism, Christianity, and Islam originate?



Abrahamic-Family-Tree.jpg


How does Judaism, Christianity, and Islam compare & contrast with one another?Venn-Diagram-Three-Religions.jpg
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Websites on Judaism, Christianity, and Islam


Judaism - http://www.uri.org/kids/world_juda_basi.htm

Christianity - http://www.uri.org/kids/world_chri.htm

Islam - http://www.uri.org/kids/world_isla.htm

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Judaism
Judaism has about 13 million followers throughout the world, mostly in USA and Israel. Aproximately 270,100 people in the UK said that their religious identity was Jewish (2011 census).
Judaism originated in the Middle East over 3500 years ago.
Moses was the main founder of Judaism, but Jews can trace their history back as far as Abraham.
6 million Jews were murdered in the Holocaust in an attempt to wipe out Judaism.

Beliefs

Jews believe that there is only one God.
Jews believe they have a special agreement or covenant with God. In exchange for all the good that God has done for them, Jewish people keep God's laws and try to bring holiness into every aspect of their lives.
Judaism is a faith of action and Jews believe people should be judged not so much on what they believe as on the way they live their faith - by how much they contribute to the overall holiness of the world.

Holy Books

A Torah being copied
A Torah being copied
The most holy Jewish book is the Torah (the first five books of the Hebrew Bible) which was revealed by God to Moses on Mount Sinai over 3,000 years ago.
The Torah, together with the Talmud (commentary on the Torah), give the Jewish people rules for everyday life. Observing these rules is central to the Jewish religion.

Worship

Jews worship in Synagogues
A Jewish Religious leader is called a Rabbi (literally 'teacher')

Shabbat (The Sabbath)

The family and community are very important within Jewish life.
The most important day of the week is Shabbat (the Sabbath). It is the day on which Jews remember the seventh day of creation on which God rested. On Shabbat Jews stop working and make time for God and family life.
Shabbat starts on Friday evening and ends at sunset on Saturday.
Shabbat begins with the family sharing a meal.
During Shabbat, services are held at the synagogue, often led by a Rabbi.

Jewish festivals

The most important Jewish festivals are:

Jewish symbols

The emblem of the Jewish people is the Magen David (Shield of David), also known as the Star of David.

Christianity

Christianity is the largest religion in the world with over 2 billion followers. 42 million people in Britain today describe themselves as Christian, and there are 6 million who are actively practising.
Christianity is focussed on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, who Christians believe to be the Son of God. Jesus was born in Bethlehem in the Middle East over 2000 years ago.
The Christian holy book is the Bible. It is divided into the Old and New Testaments.
The New Testament explains how God sent his only son, Jesus Christ, to restore the broken relationship between people and God which had been caused by human wrong doing.
Jesus was executed on a cross (Crucifixion) as a criminal by the Romans, and according to Christian teaching after three days he rose from the dead (the Resurrection)
Christians believe that there is only one God, but that he is revealed in three different forms:
  • God the Father
  • God the Son
  • The Holy Spirit
Christians model themselves on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. Jesus taught people to love God and love their neighbour.
Right Reverend Riah in St Michael-le-Belfrey
Right Reverend Riah in St Michael-le-Belfrey
Many Christians worship in churches. Some groups meet in homes and other buildings. 'Church' means the gathering of Christians as well as the building in which Christians worship.
Their leaders are called priests or ministers.
Different ways of understanding Christian teachings has led to groups of Christians worshipping in different ways. These denominations include the Church of England, the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and many others.
Many churches hold a service called Communion, Eucharist or Mass, in which bread and wine are shared together, just as Jesus did with his followers before his death.
The most important Christian festivals are: Lent, Easter and Christmas


Islam is the second largest religion in the world with over 1 billion followers. There are around 2 millions Muslims in Britain, around 2.7% of the population.
The word 'Islam' in Arabic means submission to the will of God.
Followers of Islam are called Muslims. Muslims believe there is one true God Allah (the Arabic word for God)
Muslims believe that Islam was revealed over 1400 years ago in Mecca, Arabia through a man called Muhammad. Muhammad is so revered that it is usual for Muslims to say 'peace be upon him' whenever they mention his name.
Muhammad is believed by Muslims to be the last prophet sent by God (Allah) According to Muslims, God sent prophets to mankind to teach them how to live according to His law. Jesus (Isa), Moses (Musa) and Abraham (Ibrahim) are other respected prophets.
The Muslim holy book is called the Qur'an. Muslims believe this to be the word of Allah as dictated to Muhammad. They also have the Sunnah, which Muslims believe to be the practical example of Prophet Muhammad. Muslims follow the five basic Pillars of Islam.They are an essential part of Muslim life:
The Five Pillars of Islam are an essential part of Muslim life. These pillars are:
  • the declaration of faith (Shahada)
  • praying five times a day (Salat)
  • giving money to charity (Zakah)
  • fasting (Sawm)
  • a pilgrimage to Makkah at least once in a lifetime(Hajj)
Muslims worship in a building called a Mosque. On Friday at noon, the most important of the weekly services is held. When Muslims pray, they must always face Makkah.




Christianity
Islam
Judaism
Adherents Called
Christians
Muslims
Jews
Name Means
followers of Christ (Greek christos, Messiah)
Arabic, "submission"
of the Kingdom of Judah
Date Founded
c. 30 CE
622 CE
c. 7th century BCE
Place Founded
Palestine
Arabian Peninsula
ancient Palestine
Original Languages
Aramaic and Greek
Arabic
Hebrew
Founders & Early Leaders
Jesus, Peter, Paul
Muhammad
Abraham, Moses
Expansion
within 60 years, churches in major cities in Palestine, Turkey, Greece and Rome; entire Roman Empire by end of 4th cent.
within 12 years, entire Arabian peninsula; within 100 years, Muslim world stretched from the Atlantic to China
little expansion; mostly confined to Palestine area throughout history
Schisms
Catholic-Orthodox (1054); Catholic-Protestant (1500s)
Shia-Sunni (c. 650 CE)
Reform-Orthodox (1800s CE)
Branches
Roman Catholic; Eastern Orthodox; Protestant

Christian Denominations
Sunni, Shi'a, Sufism

Islamic sects and schools
Orthodox, Reform, Conservative

Jewish Sects and Movements
Main Locations
Europe, North and South America, Africa
Middle East, Southeast Asia
Israel, Eastern Europe, USA
Adherents
2.2 billion
1.6 billion
14 million

Adherents of Judaism
Adherents in USA
159 million
3.3 million
5.6 million
Adherents in Canada
21 million
500,000
350,000
Adherents in UK
51 million

320,000
Texts
Bible (Hebrew Bible + New Testament)

Christian Texts
Qur'an (sacred text); Hadith (tradition)

Islamic sacred texts
Hebrew Bible (Tanakh); Talmud

Jewish sacred texts

Christianity
Islam
Judaism
Hebrew Bible
canonical; called "the Old Testament"
noncanonical and corrupted but useful as a inspired text
canonical
Apocrypha
canonical (Catholic) or useful but noncanonical (Protestant)
noncanonical
noncanonical but useful
New Testament
canonical
noncanonical and corrupted but useful as a inspired text
noncanonical
Statements of Faith
Apostle's Creed, Nicene Creed
Six Articles of Faith
13 Articles of Faith
Religious Law
canon law (Catholicism)
Sharia
Halakhah
Religious Authority
Bible; some also look to church fathers, church councils, ecumenical creeds; papal decrees and canon law for Catholics
Qur'an, Hadith
Bible, Talmud, halakhah
Doctrine of Scripture
views vary: most believe inspired by God; some believe literal Word of God, inerrant in original languages

Christian Doctrines of Scripture
inspired, literal word of God; inerrant in original language
views vary
Prophets
Biblical prophets were true prophets of God
Biblical prophets were true prophets; Muhammad is the final and greatest

Islamic beliefs about the prophets
Biblical prophets were true prophets of God
God
Holy Trinity = God the Father + God the Son + God the Holy Spirit
One God (Allah in Arabic); the same God revealed (imperfectly) in the Jewish and Christian Bibles
One God: Yahweh (YHVH)

God in Judaism
Spiritual Beings
angels and demons
angels, demons, jinn
angels and demons
Revered Humans
saints, church fathers
prophets; imams (especially in Shia Islam)
prophets
Messiah
Jesus Christ is the Messiah awaited by the Jews
Sunni: the Madhi (Messiah) will come in the future; identity is known only to Allah; Shi'a: was born in 869, is now the Hidden Imam
the Messiah will come in the future

Jewish beliefs about the messiah
Jesus
Son of God, God incarnate, Word of God, Messiah, savior of the world

Christian beliefs about Jesus
true prophet of God, whose message has been corrupted

Islamic beliefs about Jesus
false prophet
Birth of Christ
virgin birth
virgin birth
normal birth
Death of Christ
real physical death plus spiritual suffering
Jesus did not die, but ascended bodily into heaven (a disciple died in his place)
normal death

Christianity
Islam
Judaism
Resurrection of Christ
affirmed
did not die; ascended into heaven during crucifixion
denied
Second Coming of Christ
affirmed
affirmed
denied
Revelation
through Prophets and Jesus (as God Himself), recorded in Bible
through Muhammad, recorded in Qur'an
prophets, recorded in Hebrew Bible
Human Nature
Created good but all inherit "original sin" from Adam, causing a tendency to evil

Christian Beliefs about Human Nature
born with equal ability to do good or evil

Islamic beliefs about human nature
two equal impulses, one good and one bad

Jewish views of human nature
Salvation
correct belief, faith, good deeds, sacraments (Protestants emphasize faith alone)

salvation (Christianity)
correct belief, good deeds, Five Pillars

salvation in Islam
belief in God, good deeds
Predestination
affirmed by most denominations
affirmed

Afterlife
Resurrection of body and soul; eternal heaven or hell (most denominations); temporary purgatory (Catholicism)

Christianity on the Afterlife
eternal Paradise or eternal Hell

Islamic beliefs about the afterlife
Not emphasized; views vary: no afterlife, shadowy existence, World to Come (similar to heaven), Gehenna (similar to hell), reincarnation

afterlife (Judaism)
View of Christianity
true religion
respected as fellow "People of the Book" but have wrong beliefs and only partial, corrupted revelation
false interpretation and expansion of Judaism
View of Islam
respected as a fellow monotheistic religion, but Muhammad is not seen as a true prophet

false interpretation and expansion of Judaism
View of Judaism
true religion but with incomplete revelation
respected as fellow "People of the Book" but have wrong beliefs and only partial, corrupted revelation
true religion
House of Worship
church, chapel, cathedral, basilica, meeting hall
mosque
synagogue, temple, schul
Day of Worship
Sunday
Friday
Saturday
Clergy
priest, bishop, archbishop, patriarch, pope, pastor, minister, preacher, deacon
imams
rabbis
Practices
Prayer, Bible study, baptism, Eucharist (Communion), church on Sundays, numerous holidays.

Christian Practices
Five Pillars: Faith, Prayer, Alms, Pilgrimage, Fasting. Mosque services on Fridays. Ablutions before prayer. No alcohol or pork. Holidays related to the pilgrimage and fast of Ramadan.

Muslim rituals and practices
Circumcision at birth, bar/bat mitzvah at adulthood, observing Sabbath, wearing tallit and tefilin, prayer services

Jewish practices
head covered during prayer
generally no
yes
generally yes (especially men)

Christianity
Islam
Judaism
Major Holidays
Lent, Holy Week, Easter
Eid-al-Fitr, Eid-al-Adha, month of Ramadan
Yom Kippur, Days of Awe, Passover
Other Holidays
Christmas, saints days
Mawlid, Ashura
Chanukah, Purim
Symbols
Cross, dove, anchor, fish, alpha/omega, chi rho

Christian symbols
Star and crescent; name of Allah in Arabic; color green; mosque silhouette.

Islamic symbols
Star of David, chai, hamsa, tree