Mesopotamia - Land between the Rivers!

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Just below are four PDF files containing text. Use the texts for enrichment or reinforcement. General information will follow below the PDF files.


Homework and class activities will be located at the bottom of the page. Thanks for visiting!










Ziggurat and a Sumerian City


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The Fertile Crescent: by Mr. DonnYou may read on the web that ancient Mesopotamia is nicknamed "The Fertile Crescent". It is true that ancient Mesopotamia is located inside the geographic region referred to as The Fertile Crescent.

Today, The Fertile Crescent includes the countries of Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Cyprus, Jordan, Palestine, Kuwait, the Sinai Peninsula, and Northern Mesopotamia. It is a big place.

The Land Between Two Rivers: Ancient Mesopotamia was located in a piece of The Fertile Crescent, in what is now southern Iraq. It covered an area about 300 miles long and about 150 miles wide.
The word Mesopotamia actually means (in Greek) “the land between the rivers.” The two rivers referred to by the ancient Greeks are the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers.
Why would anyone wish to build a civilization in the middle of the desert in what is now lower Iraq? Because it was a great place to live!

In Northern Mesopotamia, the land is fertile. There is seasonal rain. The rivers and streams are fed from the hills and mountains of the region.

In Southern Mesopotamia, the land is mostly flat and barren. Temperatures can rise over 110 degrees Fahrenheit. There is very little rainfall. Storms do blow in from the Persian Gulf, which cools things off. The area does have slight seasons. It can get quite cool at certain times of the year.

Many thousands of years ago, early settlers wandered into the land between two rivers. Natural vegetation and wildlife kept the people well fed. The rivers provided fresh drinking water, and a place to bathe. These early people settled down, invented a system of irrigation, and began to **farm the land**.

Map of the Fertile Crescent - Modern Day Middle East_


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Mesopotamia was the earliest civilization in the world. Many plants and animals became domesticated, or tame, in this region. The map below show the items and dates of domestication.
Early-Humans-Map-Domestication-Fertile-Crescent.jpg



Domestication of world products___




Early-Humans-Map-Domestication.jpg

Introduction to Mesopotamia_

General Information__=

Early Pioneers:One day, a group of early settlers wandered into the land between two rivers. No one knows for sure, but there may have been a small band of people already living in the area. If so, the settlers quickly took over. They were real pioneers. They built permanent homes of sun-dried bricks made of mud and straw, and started a new life in the southern region of ancient Mesopotamia.

The people who settled down and began to develop a civilization, in the land between two rivers, are known as the Sumerians. The Sumerian civilization probably began around 5000 BCE. In the beginning, they were an **agricultural community**. They grew crops and stored food for times of need.

Early Inventions: The ancient Sumerians were very smart. They invented, amongst other things, the wheel, the sailboat, and the first written language, frying pans, razors, cosmetic sets, shepherd’s pipes, harps, kilns to cook bricks and pottery, bronze hand tools like hammers and axes, the plow, the plow seeder, and the first superhero, Gilgamesh.

They invented a system of mathematics based on the number 60. Today, we divide an hour into 60 minutes, and a minute into 60 seconds. That comes from the ancient Mesopotamians.

Some Mesopotamian words are still in use today. Words like crocus, which is a flower, and saffron, which is a spice, are words borrowed from the ancient Mesopotamians.


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Cities:Ancient Sumer was a bustling place of three or four hundred people. (Just kidding.) The ancient Sumerians built many cities along the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers. Archaeologists believe that their largest city, the city of Ur, had a population of around 24,000 residents
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As Time Went On ... About a thousand years later, the **Babylonians** took over in the south, and the **Assyrians** took over in the north, but the Sumerian culture lived on.


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Government: The ancient Mesopotamians created a government that was a combination of monarchy and democracy. Kings ruled the people. Elected officials who served in the Assembly also ruled the people. Even kings had to ask the Assembly for permission to do certain things.


Law and Order: Law held a special place in their civilization. Sumerian laws were not written down, but people knew what they were and they knew what could happen to you if you broke the law. The Sumerian laws clearly said how you had to behave and what your punishment would be if you did not behave correctly. The laws that were later written down by the ancient Babylonians were, for the most part, laws first created by the ancient Sumerians.

You can see why we say that these were extremely clever people. We owe them a lot!

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Ancient Mesopotamia is called the cradle of civilization. The first cities and empires formed here.


Timeline__

As you will see from the timeline, power changed hands many times throughout the ancient history of this area. It went from the Sumer to the Akkadians to the Babylonians to the Assyrians back to the Babylonians back to the Assyrians and finally to the Persians. By: DUCKSTERS5000 BC - The Sumer form the first towns and cities. They use irrigation to farm large areas of land.

4000 BC - The Sumer establish powerful city-states building large ziggurats at the center of their cities as temples to their gods.

3500 BC - Much of lower Mesopotamia is inhabited by numerous Sumer city-states such as Ur, Uruk, Eridu, Kish, Lagash, and Nippur.

3300 BC - The Sumerians invent the first writing. They use pictures for words and inscribe them on clay tablets.

3200 BC - The Sumerians begin to use the wheel on vehicles.

3000 BC - The Sumerians start to implement mathematics using a number system with the base 60.

2700 BC - The famous Sumerian King Gilgamesh rules the city-state of Ur.

2400 BC - The Sumerian language is replaced by the Akkadian language as the primary spoken language in Mesopotamia.

2330 BC - Sargon I of the Akkadians conquers most of the Sumerian city states and creates the world's first empire, the Akkadian Empire.

2250 BC - King Naram-Sin of the Akkadians expands the empire to its largest state. He will rule for 50 years.

2100 BC - After the Akkadian Empire crumbles, the Sumerians once again gain power. The city of Ur is rebuilt.

2000 BC - The Elamites capture Ur.

1900 BC - The Assyrians rise to power in northern Mesopotamia.

1792 BC - Hammurabi becomes king of Babylon. He establishes the Code of Hammurabi and Babylon soon takes over much of Mesopotamia.

1781 BC - King Shamshi-Adad of the Assyrians dies. The First Assyrian Empire is soon taken over by the Babylonians.

1750 BC - Hammurabi dies and the First Babylonian Empire begins to fall apart.

1595 BC - The Kassites take the city of Babylon.

1360 BC - The Assyrians once again rise in power.

1250 BC - The Assyrians begin to use iron weapons and chariots.

1225 BC - The Assyrians capture Babylon.

1115 BC - The Second Assyrian Empire reaches its peak under the rule of King Tiglath-Piliser I.

1077 BC - Tiglath-Piliser dies and the Assyrian Empire becomes weaker for a time.

744 BC - The Assyrian Empire becomes strong once again under the rule of Tiglath-Piliser III.

721 BC - King Sargon II takes control of Assyria. The empire grows stronger.

709 BC - Sargon II takes control of the city of Babylon.

705 BC - Sargon II dies and Sennacherib becomes king. He moves the capital to Nineveh.

668 BC - Ashurbanipal becomes the last great King of Assyria. He establishes a great library in the city of Nineveh.

626 BC - Ashurbanipal dies and Assyria begins to crumble.

616 BC - Nabopolassar takes control of Babylon back from the Assyrians and crowns himself king. The neo-Babylonian empire begins.

604 BC - Nabopolassar dies and Nebuchadnezzar II becomes King of Babylon. He will rule for 43 years and bring the Babylonian Empire to its peak.

550 BC - Cyrus the Great rises to power and the Persian Empire begins.

539 BC - Cyrus the Great takes the city of Babylon and lets the Jewish people return to Israel.

522 BC - Darius I becomes King of Persia. He expands the empire and divides it up into states each ruled by a governor called a satrap.

518 BC - Darius I establishes the capital of the Persian Empire at Persepolis.

490 BC - Darius I attacks the Greeks. He is defeated at the Battle of Marathon.

480 BC - Xerxes I tries to conquer the Greeks with a huge army. He is eventually turned back in defeat.

333 BC - Alexander the Great invades the land and conquers the Persian Empire.

Assignments and Homework located below


Thursday and Friday

September 15 and 16, 2016

Mesopotamia: Geography

How did geography impact life for Mesopotamians?=

Study Guide handed out...please see copy below


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=84y2q4giihY


Why would anyone wish to build a civilization in the middle of the desert in what is now lower Iraq? The answer: Because it was a wonderful place to live!

Many thousands of years ago, early settlers began to build cities along the banks of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. Natural wildlife and vegetation kept them fed while they began to build their new world.

They wove sturdy baskets from the weeds that grew along the riverbanks and made pottery from the wet clay. It did not rain much, but the early settlers soon learned that if you irrigated the land, crops grew quickly. These early people built canals to bring water to the land from the rivers. They planted wheat, barley, dates, and vegetables including cucumbers, onions, apples, and spices.They raised sheep, goats, and cows. They hunted wild game birds and other animals, and enjoyed fish, cheese, eggs, roasted duck, pork, and deer.



Below is the power point with essential questions, directions, notes, etc., which was used to introduce Mesopotamia and the basic geography.





Below is a video from DiscoveryEducation.com. The video is titled

Mesopotamia: From Nomads to Farmers.=

Explore the agricultural practices and technological devices that led to the rise of civilization in Mesopotamia. Meet the nomadic people who became farmers. And see how they established city-states, developed specialized work skills, and advanced organized religion.


Don't forget how to sign-in

Student ID#_CMS

Student ID#

http://app.discoveryeducation.com/player/view/assetGuid/3029357E-9BB7-40D5-93E2-EFFBDCA2AFFE



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Monday and TuesdaySeptember 19 and 20, 2016Mesopotamia:

Step#1.

Get out your graphic organizer. You will continue to answer the essential question (How did geography impact life in Mesopotamia?). Please add the information below to your graphic organizer - EQ #1.

Mesopotamia did not produce all the resources it needed. However, it did produce an abundance of crops that could be used for trade.1. A system of trade began in the cities. Food was traded locally for other goods.2. Also, Mesopotamians traded grains, oils, and textiles (cloth) with outside societies for goods such as gems and wood.3. Merchants traveled to trading centers via land or sea. They used boats and donkeys to transport their goods.So What Is the Big Deal?
Trade meant:1. even more growth for Mesopotamia. Trading allowed Mesopotamians to:2. meet all of their needs and 3. establish a level of importance with outside cultures.

Step #2


Below is a video from DiscoveryEducation.com. It is titled

Mesopotamia: Trade Routes and Transportation.

For the Sumerians, the Tigris River served as an important early trade route. See how they traveled by river and overland to trade with India and Egypt. Then examine how technological advances, such as the cart, facilitated transporting people and goods.

Don't forget how to sign-in

Student ID#_CMS

Student ID#

http://app.discoveryeducation.com/player/view/assetGuid/CDCDD71B-7619-4EBE-BE76-F5D7325DEF9D


Step #3

Watch the three video clips located below. Finish filling in your graphic organizer with answers for EQ 2: How did religion and gender influence Mesopotamian Society? and EQ 3: How did Mesopotamian technological and cultural innovations influence future civilizations?

















Step #4

Below is information relating to EQ#2 and EQ#3. Use it to check with the information you obtained from the above videos.

Mesopotamian Religion

Mesopotamians were polytheists who worshiped many different gods connected to nature and to particular aspects of life.

  • Each Mesopotamian city had its own god that it worshiped.

  • Mesopotamian city-states built ziggurats for worshiping their gods. Ziggurats had temples and altars to the gods, as well as long staircases for the gods to descend to Earth.

  • Mesopotamians believed that their kings were chosen by the gods. The king and the priests were in charge of religious ceremonies that were conducted to please the gods.

Why Does It Matter?

Mesopotamia was one of the earliest civilizations to have an organized religion. Their religion helped to shape their society and culture.

Mesopotamians built ziggurats as temples to their gods.


A Social Pyramid

Mesopotamian social classes can be depicted in a social pyramid. People's level on the pyramid was determined by their profession. Although some social mobility occurred, most people stayed at the level into which they were born for their entire lives.

  • The king was the primary political and religious figure.

  • Priests and government officials directed the religious and administrative matters of the city-state.

  • Artisans made the goods for the city-state. Merchants traded goods among city-states and between different ancient cultures. Scribes were the official record-keepers of society.

  • Farmers grew the food that allowed the civilization to thrive. In return, they received protection from the king and support from the priests.

  • Enslaved people were at the bottom of the social pyramid and had no power.

Why Does It Matter?

People from all levels of Mesopotamian society were important to the success of the civilization, although different groups had different amounts of power.


Mesopotamian Innovations

Early Mesopotamians developed a number of innovations which greatly improved the lives of the people, particularly in the area of agriculture.

  • Mesopotamians developed a calendar, which helped them predict floods.

  • The cuneiform alphabet, one of the first written languages, made it easier to communicate and keep detailed records.

  • The Epic of Gilgamesh was the first recorded story. It deals with many of the universal themes and ideas still found in literature today.

  • The wheel and the plow made farming easier.

  • A variety of metal and ceramic tools increased the complexity of what Mesopotamians could do and make.

Why Does It Matter?

Mesopotamian calendars, alphabets, literature, and tools influenced and were built upon by the cultures that followed it, including the Hebrew, Greek, and Roman civilizations. Because Mesopotamians kept such detailed records, and their clay writing tablets were so durable, historians have been able to learn a lot about their daily lives.

Hammurabi's Revolutionary Code of Law

Hammurabi was a Babylonian king who consolidated and annotated the laws into a single code. The code laid out specific rules of conduct and the punishments for breaking them.

  • The code called for punishment by humans, not gods.

  • The code established the principle of equivalent punishment, known today as "an eye for an eye."

  • Tradesmen and lawmakers were held to the same standard as ordinary citizens, to prevent arbitrary and unfair rulings.

  • The code explicitly called for protection of the weak and unfortunate: orphans, widows, and the downtrodden.

Why Does It Matter?

Hammurabi's Code provided stability to the system of laws and punishment, and it is one of the inspirations for our modern legal systems.



Emperor Sargon II - the world's first emperor. Had the world's first permanent army.




Sargon-II.jpg


A view of the Ziggurat from inside of Emperor Sargon's II Palace.

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A view of a Mesopotamian City-State.

Sumerian-City-State-With-Zuggarut.jpg

A Mesopotamian City-State.

Sumerian-City-State.jpg




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Wednesday, Thursday, Friday and MondaySeptember 21, 22, 23, and 26 2015Mesopotamia: Society

Below is the word document which the Blueprint Activity can be found.



Below are some websites which can assist you.


http://www.ducksters.com/history/mesopotamia/ancient_mesopotamia.php

www.kidsdiscover.com/shop/issues/mesopotamia-for-kids

www.watchknowlearn.org/Category.aspx?CategoryID=5711

kids.britannica.com/comptons/article-9275801


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http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-sXS-paJnFYM/U2RxJLUJZAI/AAAAAAAAnqY/9_VSmAeUBpg/s1600/vsdfvdfresve.jpg



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Tuesday and Wednesday

September 27 and 28, 2016

Mesopotamia: Innovations & Culture


Step #1 -

Complete the following reviews on schoolnet.

Social Studies 6 Unit 2 Mesopotamia EQ 2 Review 2016-2017 [1220084]

Online Passcode: VE4DA3BE2

Social Studies 6 Unit 2 Mesopotamia EQ2 Vocabulary Review 2016-2017 [1220102]

Online Passcode: MA5KE5MA5

Step #2 -

The power point below has information we used to direct class discussion. Please make sure you have the information in your EQ#3 Graphic Organizer.




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Step #3


Students focus on Hammurabi and his code of laws. Read the handout below. Answer questions 1-4 using complete sentences.





Step #4:

Open the link to Hammurabi's Code. Your job is to read several sections of the code. Choose four laws which you feel show that the code was fair. Choose four laws which you feel shows the code was cruel.


The website below will take you to a list of Hammurabi's Code of Law

http://iws.collin.edu/mbailey/hammurabi%27s%20laws.htm




Below is a link to a video from DiscoveryEducation.com. It is titled

Mesopotamia: The Development of Written Language. It is 11:58 minutes long.=

http://app.discoveryeducation.com/player/view/assetGuid/af8d15de-1575-4b85-8556-424f1626ac02



Check out the links below fro the British Museum in London, England. Why do they (England) have so much stuff from Mesopotamia? Because they stole it!

Mesopotamia - Assyria, Babylon, Sumer

http://www.mesopotamia.co.uk/menu.html

Assyrian Exhibition

http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/galleries/middle_east/room_6_assyrian_sculpture.aspx

Babylonian Exhibition

http://www.britishmuseum.org/channel/exhibitions/2008/babylon_myth_and_reality/video_babylon_introduction.aspx


Image result for sumerian accomplishments
Image result for sumerian accomplishments
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Below are links to news articles regarding the attack and destruction of ancient Mesopotamian historical sites and artifacts by militant terrorist groups.

Please note that some images and text may be disturbing.

Search Results

Ancient Mesopotamian Artifacts Smashed in New ISIS Video

www.livescience.com/49968-ancient-artifacts-smashed-isis-video.html
Feb 26, 2015 - Ancient Mesopotamian Artifacts Smashed in New ISIS Video ... of the Iraqi National Museum," according to a 2009 UNESCO assessment of the site. ... "This mindless attack on great art, on history and on human understanding ...

ISIS' Attack on Ancient History Called a 'War Crime'

www.livescience.com/50072-isis-attack-on-ancient-history.html
Mar 6, 2015 - ISIS has recently taken aim at archaeological ruins and relics in ... it is one of the most important archaeological sites not just in Mesopotamia, ...

A roundup of ancient sites ISIS has destroyed - CNN.com

www.cnn.com/2015/03/09/world/iraq-isis-heritage/CNN

Mar 9, 2015 - The video, which ISIS posted Saturday, shows militants attacking the more than 3,000-year-old archaeological site with sledgehammers and ...

ISIS Attacks Nimrud, a Major Archaeological Site in Iraq ...

www.nytimes.com/.../isis-attacks-iraqi-archaeologic...

Outcry over Isis destruction of ancient Assyrian site of Nimrud

www.theguardian.com › World › Iraq

Isis fighters destroy ancient artefacts at Mosul museum - The ...

www.theguardian.com › World › Islamic State
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Code of Hammurabi


The website below will take you to a list of Hammurabi's Code of Law

http://iws.collin.edu/mbailey/hammurabi%27s%20laws.htm


Below is information regarding Hammurabi's Code. Feel free to read any and all of the information. There are a few interactive websites!


**History for Kids** >> **Ancient Mesopotamia for Kids**

The first great king of Babylon was King Hammurabi. He conquered all of Mesopotamia and established the first Babylonian Empire. Hammurabi also established a set of laws that is today called the Code of Hammurabi.

How do we know about the Code of Hammurabi?

The Code of Hammurabi was written down on clay tablets and etched into stone. It is one of the oldest recorded codes of laws in the world. One of the best surviving examples of the code is written on the "diorite stele".

Hammurabi and the diorite stele
Hammurabi and the diorite stele
The top of the diorite stele

Diorite Stele

The diorite stele is a large stone shaped like a giant finger. It is about seven feet tall and two feet wide. It contains around 4000 lines of text describing 282 different laws. At the top, or "fingertip", of the stele is a carved picture of King Hammurabi being given the laws from the Babylonian sun god Shamash.


The Code of Law

The actual code of law was divided up into groupings. Many of the laws that had to do with one subject (i.e. slavery) were grouped together. This would have helped people to find and read just the laws that pertained to them. Here are some of the major sections of the code:

  • Prologue

  • Legal Procedures

  • Household laws

  • Slavery

  • Trade and business

  • Religion

  • Epilogue


The prologue introduced the Code. The prologue describes how the god Shamash gave the laws to Hammurabi.

Here is an excerpt from the prologue:

"bring about the rule of righteousness in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil-doers; so that the strong should not harm the weak, so that I should rule …. and enlighten the land, to further the well-being of mankind".

In the epilogue Hammurabi restates his desire for justice for all saying "Let the oppressed man come and stand before my image as king of righteousness. Let him understand my words and his case, so he will understand what is just and his heart will be glad."


Examples of the Laws

Many of the laws describe exactly what a worker should earn. For example, one law states that a sailor should be paid six gur of grain per year.

Some laws were very harsh and the penalties severe:

  • If a son should strike his father, his hands shall be cut off.

  • If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out.

  • If any man should strike a man of higher rank, he shall receive sixty blows with an ox-whip.

  • If a builder builds a house for someone and that house collapses killing them, then the builder shall be put to death.


What makes the code important?

The code itself tells archaeologists a lot about the lives of the people of Babylon. It also contains some important ideas like having people provide evidence of a crime, innocent until proven guilty, and protection for the weak.


Interesting Facts about the Code of Hammurabi

  • Shamash, who is featured at the top of the diorite stele, was the Babylonian god of law, justice, and salvation.

  • The diorite stele is called "diorite" because it is made from a type of black rock called diorite.

  • The diorite stele was originally found by archeologists in the ancient city of Susa. Today it can be found in the Louvre Museum in Paris, France.

  • The Code of Hammurabi is one of the oldest and longest deciphered writings in existence.

  • The code was written using cuneiform script and the Akkadian language.

Additional Information in another format

One of the ancient Babylonian kings was named Hammurabi. Hammurabi was tired of people changing the laws whenever they wanted an advantage. So Hammurabi did something no one before him had ever done. He had all the laws written down on clay tablets. He did this so that everyone could know what the law was and no one, not poor man or noble, would be able to say that that wasn't the law.

This links below are additional Student-Friendly sources for learning about Hammurabi's Code.

The Laws of Hammurabi (interactive)

//Hammurabi's Code//: An Eye for an Eye [ushistory.org]

www.ushistory.org/civ/4c.asp

Phillip Martin's You Be the Judge of //Hammurabi's Code//

www.phillipmartin.info/hammurabi/hammurabi_situation_index.htm

The Link below has the list of Hammurabi's Code. Please note that some may be difficult to understand and interpret.

//Code// of //Hammurabi// - Legal History and Philosophy

www.commonlaw.com/Hammurabi.html










The website located below is an interactive site for students. Students will assume the role of an archaeologist. They will attempt to find artifacts from ancient Mesopotamia. Along the way, they uncover many great finds. Also, this site will allow students to become a curator of a museum. Students will be able to compile artifacts and introduce them to the public! Enjoy!

http://mesopotamia.lib.uchicago.edu/interactives/DigIntoHistory.html






Step #1 - Please complete the following review. DO NOT USE YOUR NOTES OR VOCABULARY CARDS!! Thank you!


Social Studies 6 Unit 2 Mesopotamia Geography 2015-2016

Online Passcode: JA7SA4CE9


Social Studies 6 Unit 2 Mesopotamia Society Review 2015-2016

Online Passcode: DE6WU9M


Social Studies 6 Unit 2 Mesopotamia Achievements Review

Online Passcode: BU9FU7


Step #2 - Go to yesterday's lesson to obtain the necessary information for writing your essay. The first step is to use the graphic organizer below, yes, you do not have a choice (said politely but firmly). We will work on this together as needed.

Web-Graphic-Organizer.jpg

Step #3 - take the information from the graphic organizer and begin the roughdraft of your essay. Take each subtopic, with examples, and form a paragraph. Eventually you will have 4 paragraphs completed!

Step #4 - Edit/Peer/Teacher Review. Now is the time to review your roughdraft. You will need to read it over yourself, making corrections on the paper as needed. Also, use this time to have at least 1 other set of eyes and brain to read over your information. They will also need to make editing marks on the paper.

Step #5 - Once you have completed the editing process, and feel relatively confident about the information, take the time to create your final draft of the essay. The essay may be hand written using blue or black ink only OR you may type the essay using times Roman 12 font.

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Step #1 - Please complete the following reviews. DO NOT USE YOUR VOCABULARY OR NOTES!! Thank you!


Social Studies 6 Unit 2 Mesopotamia EQ1

Online Passcode: NY9VE7J


Social Studies 6 Unit 2 Mesopotamia EQ 2 [662075]

Online Passcode: MU5DA8BE2



Step #2 - work on essay. Please follow the directions from the classes before.

United States Government

US Constitution Amendments

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An amendment is a change or addition to the Constitution. The first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution are called the Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights was ratified in 1791, only a short time after the Constitution was first ratified. This is because some states only agreed to ratify the Constitution once they knew a Bill of Rights would soon be added.

Over the years additional amendments have been added to the Constitution.


List of Amendments

Today there are 27 total amendments. Below is a brief description of each.

Here is a list of the first 10 amendments to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights:

The First Amendment - states that Congress shall make no law preventing the establishment of religion or prohibiting its free exercise. Also protected are freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, and the right to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

The Second Amendment - protects citizen's right to bear arms.

The Third Amendment - prevents the government from placing troops in private homes. This was a real problem during the American Revolutionary War.

The Fourth Amendment - this amendment prevents the government from unreasonable search and seizure of the property of US citizens. It requires the government to have a warrant that was issued by a judge and based on probable cause.

The Fifth Amendment - The Fifth Amendment is famous for people saying "I'll take the Fifth". This gives people the right to choose not to testify in court if they feel their own testimony will incriminate themselves.

In addition this amendment protects citizens from being subject to criminal prosecution and punishment without due process. It also prevents people from being tried for the same crime twice. The amendment also establishes the power of eminent domain, which means that private property can not be seized for public use without just compensation.

The Sixth Amendment - guarantees a speedy trial by a jury of one's peers. Also, people accused are to be informed of the crimes with which they are charged and have the right to confront the witnesses brought by the government. The amendment also provides the accused the right to compel testimony from witnesses, and to legal representation (meaning the government has to provide a lawyer).

The Seventh Amendment - provides that civil cases also be tried by jury.

The Eighth Amendment - prohibits excessive bail, excessive fines, and cruel and unusual punishments.

The Ninth Amendment - states that the list of rights described in the Constitution is not exhaustive, and that the people still have all the rights that are not listed.

The Tenth Amendment - gives all powers not specifically given to the United States government in the Constitution, to either the states or to the people.

11th (February 7, 1795) - This amendment set limits on when a state can be sued. In particular it gave immunity to states from law suits from out-of-state citizens and foreigners not living within the state borders.

12th (June 15, 1804) - Revised the presidential election procedures.

13th (December 6, 1865) - This amendment abolished slavery and involuntary servitude.

14th (July 9, 1868) - Defined what it means to be a US citizen. It prohibits states from reducing the privileges of citizens and ensures each citizen the 'right to due process and the equal protection of the law'.

15th (February 3, 1870) - Gave all men the right to vote regardless of race or color or whether they had been slaves.

16th (February 3, 1913) - Gave the federal government the power to collect income tax.

17th (April 8, 1913) - Established that senators would be directly elected.

18th (January 16, 1919) - Prohibition of alcohol making alcoholic drinks illegal. (It would later be repealed by the Twenty-first Amendment)

19th (August 18, 1920) - The 19th amendment gave women the right to vote. It's also called women's suffrage.

20th (January 23, 1933) - Gave details on the terms of office for Congress and the President.

21st (December 5, 1933) - This amendment repealed the Eighteenth Amendment.

22nd (February 27, 1951) - Limited the president to a maximum of two terms or 10 years.

23rd (March 29, 1961) - Provided that Washington, DC be allowed representatives in the Electoral College. This way the citizens of Washington DC would have a vote for the president even though they are not officially part of a state.

24th (January 23, 1964) - Said that people don't have to pay a tax, called a poll tax, in order to vote.

25th (February 10, 1967) - This amendment defined the presidential succession if something should happen to the president. The first in line is the Vice-President.

26th (July 1, 1971) - Set the national voting age at 18.

27th (May 5 or 7, 1992) - States that Congressional salary changes can not take effect until the beginning of the next session of Congress.

Ten Commandments

1. Have no other gods.

2. Have no idols.

3. Honor God's name.

4. Honor the Sabbath day.

5. Honor your parents.

6. Do not murder.

7. Do not commit adultery (cheat on your husband/wife).

8. Do not steal.

9. Do not perjure (lie) yourself.

10. Do not covet (want what is not yours).


North Carolina State Laws

Click on the below for specifics.

http://www.ncga.state.nc.us/gascripts/statutes/statutestoc.pl


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Tuesday and Wednesday

October 4 and 5, 2016

Mesopotamia: Test Day

The website below will take you to a list of Hammurabi's Code of Law

http://iws.collin.edu/mbailey/hammurabi%27s%20laws.htm