Welcome to Ancient Rome......."Friends, Romans, Countrymen, lend me your ear"!


Homework and other assignments are located at the bottom of this page. A timeline, websites, and additional information are located on this page.



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Ancient Roman Baths. Located in Bath, England.


The PDF files located below can be used as enrichment in your study of ancient Rome.









Ancient-Rome-Aqueduct.jpg

Roman Aquaduct. Known as the Pont-Du-Gard. Located in France

Timeline of major events of the Ancient Rome from Ducksters.com

The Roman Empire was one of the greatest and most influential civilizations in world history. It began in the city of Rome in 753 BC and lasted for well over 1000 years. During that time Rome grew to rule much of Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa. Here is a timeline of some of the major events in the history of Ancient Rome.

753 BC - The city of Rome is founded. Legend has it that the twin sons of Mars, the god of war, named Romulus and Remus founded the city. Romulus killed Remus and became ruler of Rome and named the city after himself. Rome was ruled by kings for the next 240 years.

509 BC - Rome becomes a republic. The last king is overthrown and Rome is now ruled by elected officials called senators. There is a constitution with laws and a complex republican government.


450 BCE - the first written laws for Rome were set-up in the Roman Forum on 12 bronze tablets. These became known as the Law of the Twelve Tables.

287 BC - 133 BC - The Roman Senate becomes very powerful. Rome continues expanding and conquering land. Common people are forced to fight and are unable to pay for their farms. The poor increase and flee to the city of Rome for support.

264 BC - 146 BC - Rome fights a series of three wars with Carthage. Winning all three wars provides Rome with more land and power.

218 BC - Hannibal invades Italy. Hannibal leads the Carthage army in his famous crossing of the Alps to attack Rome. This is part of the Second Punic war.

133 BCE - Tiberius Gracchus and his brother Gaius Gracchus, both served in the Roman Assembly. They wanted to create farms for poor Romans. Also, they sold food cheaply to Rome's poor citizens. Both were killed for their ideas.


107 BCE - Gaius Marius, General and Consul, employed poor people into the army. His troops were more loyal to him than to Rome, giving him great political power.


88 BCE - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, general and consul, defeated Marius for power. He became a dictator and used his power to kill his enemies.


73 BC - Spartacus the gladiator leads the slaves in an uprising.

45 BC - Julius Caesar becomes dictator of Rome. Caesar makes his famous Crossing of the Rubicon and defeats Pompey in a civil war to become the supreme ruler of Rome. This signals the end of the Roman Republic.


Ancient-Rome-Caesar-Bust.jpg

44 BC - Julius Caesar is assassinated on the Ides of March by Marcus Brutus. They hope to bring back the republic, but civil war breaks out.

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Ancient-Rome-Caesar-Death.jpg

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=27 BC - The Roman Empire begins as Caesar Augustus becomes the first Roman Emperor.

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64 AD - Much of Rome burns. Legend has it that Emperor Nero watched the city burn while playing a lyre.

80 AD - The Colosseum is built. One of the great examples of Roman engineering is finished. It can seat 50,000 spectators.

Ancient-Rome-Colosseum.jpg


external image roman_empire_map_small.jpg

The Roman Empire at its peak in 117 AD - click to get larger view

121 AD - The Hadrian Wall is built. To keep out the barbarians a long wall is built across northern England.

306 AD - Constantine becomes Emperor. Constantine would convert to Christianity and Rome would become a Christian empire. Prior to this Rome persecuted the Christians.

380 AD - Theodosius I declares Christianity to be the sole religion of the Roman Empire.

395 AD - Rome splits into two empires.

410 AD - The Visigoths sack Rome. This is the first time in 800 years that the city of Rome has fallen to an enemy.


Ancient-Rome-Genseric-Sacking-Rome.jpg

476 AD - The end of the Western Roman Empire and the fall of Ancient Rome. The last Roman Emperor Romulus Augustus is defeated by the German Goth Odoacer. This signals the start of the Dark Ages in Europe.

1453 AD - The Byzantine Empire comes to an end as it falls to the Ottoman Empire.

Below are websites on ancient Rome

Ancient Rome for Kids

www.rome.mrdonn.org/

BBC - Primary History - Romans

www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/romans

Ancient Rome - Middle School History for Kids - Kidipede

www.historyforkids.org/learn/romans/


Ancient-Rome-Roman-Fort.jpg


National Geographic Kids | 10 facts about the Ancient Romans

  • www.ngkids.co.uk/did-you-know/10-facts-about-the-ancient-Romans‎

Childrens Section - The Roman Empire

  • www.roman-empire.net/children/‎

www.primaryhomeworkhelp.co.uk/Romans.html


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Ancient-Rome-Constantine-Cross.jpg

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www.mrdowling.com/702rome.html‎

www.socialstudiesforkids.com/subjects/ancientrome.htm‎


Ancient-Rome-Pantheon.jpg

[[http://www.neok12.com/Ancient-Rome.htm‎|www.neok12.com/Ancient-Rome.htm‎]]



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Geography and Early History

The Seven Hills of Rome

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Of Early Rome:

Cermalus

Cispius

Fagutal

Oppius

Palatium

Sucusa

Velia

Of Later Rome:

Aventinus (Aventine)

Caelius (Caelian)

Capitolium (Capitoline)

Esquiliae (Esquiline)

Palatium (Palatine)

Quirinalis (Quirinal)

Viminalis (Viminal)

Map of the Seven Hills of Rome
Map of the Seven Hills of Rome

Though the Capitoline is the only distinct hill today, all seven hills were once discernable. The Quirinal, Viminal, Esquiline, and Caelian hills are really promontories of an ancient volcanic ridge. The Palatine, Aventine, and Capitoline hills were hills separate from the others (not part of the same ancient ridge). There were once marshy ravines between all of the hills, and between the hills and the Tiber River, but these were drained in antiquity and the ravines are now filled in with the remains of civilization.

Archaeological evidence supports the notion that there were walled cities on each of the seven original hills. It also suggests that there was a wall that surrounded the Palatine, Esquiline, Velian, and Caelian hills but left out the Capitoline, Quirinal, and Viminal hills.

Historians and Archaeologists have found evidence of ancient enmity between peoples living on the Quirinal and Esquiline hills against those on the Velian and Palatine hills. This could help explain the reasons for choosing Remus and Romulus as leaders of the warring peoples living on the Aventine and Palatine hills respectively.

Aventine: Mons/Collis Aventinus

This hill is where Remus chose to live. In historical times it was the home of the plebeans, who built a temple to Ceres in the 5th century BCE. It also had temples for Liber and Libera.

Caelian: Mons/Collis Caelius

Many of Rome's elite lived on this hill during the Roman Republic.

Capitoline: Mons/Collis Capitolinus

This hill was the site of many of Rome's earliest fortresses. It was also the hill of the government. The temples of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, Juno Moneta, and Concord are located on this hill.

Esquiline: Mons/Collis Esquilinus

This hill had a walled city on it since at least the 700s BCE.

Palatine: Mons/Collis Palatinus

This hill is the hill of Romulus. In Classical times it was the hill where Rome's rich and powerful chose to live. Walled villages and tombs have been found here, and the people who lived in those villages seem to be dominant to their contemporaries since the 700s BCE. The temple of Magna Mater is located on the Palatine.

Quirinal: Mons/Collis Quirinalis

It is on this hill that the Sabines once lived and built their city. Archaeological evidence supports habitation of this hill since at least the 8th century BCE through tomb and walled village excavations.

Viminalis: Mons/Collis Viminalis

This is the smallest of the Seven Great Hills, and was one of the last to be included inside the walls of Rome.




Below are assignments, activities and the dates in which students will complete in their study of ancient Rome.-


February 2, 2016

Tuesday

Ancient Rome: Vocabulary, Finish Greek Test, Finish Greek Arts and Crafts


The Dolomites of northern Italy...A mountain range in the Alps

Dolomite_mountains__northern_Italy..jpg

February 3, 2016

Wednesday

Ancient Rome - Geography


Step #1 - Ancient Rome section ready. Need study guide and maps for Rome. I will check your Greek graphic organizers for credit.


Map of the major road system on the Italian Peninsula

Map__Rome_s_major_roads..jpg

Step #2 - Please open the power point located below. Follow all directions.

Please watch these two video clips which pertain to today's lesson.


Rome: A Favorable Location

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The Tiber River

The_Tiber_River.jpg



Ancient Roman art depicting soldiers working on construction projectsRoman_soldiers_engaged_in_construction..jpg

Roman Inventions

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http://app.discoveryeducation.com/player/view/assetGuid/3803BA31-FBB8-47F0-AAEA-0396519E51A4


An Ancient Roman Port City

Tipasa__a_Roman_port_city..jpg


Art work depicting ancient Roman agriculture

Roman_Agriculture.jpg

Step #3 - Complete the map of the Roman Empire.


Below is the map I provided for you.



Below is how your map should look like.


Ancient-Rome-Map-Coloring-Page-Expansion.jpgAncient-Rome-Map-Coloring-Page.jpg
external image empire2a.gif

February 4, 2016

Thursday

Ancient Rome - Geography


Step #1 - Complete your Roman Empire Map. Please let me check it off once completed - CORRECTLY!


Step #2 - Complete this mapskills activity. Just write the answers please. Answers will go on the back of your map. Check-in with me once completed.


1. Which sea is the farthest north in the Roman Empire?

2. Which sea is the farthest east in the Roman Empire?

3. The Mediterranean Sea is a Latin word for "in the middle of the land". According to the map, why does this word makes sense?

4. Which area of land was just outside of the Roman Empire bordering the Rhine River and the Danube River?

5. Which part of the Roman Empire was the ancient city of Carthage located (the name of the place)?

6. Which city was Alexandria, Egypt closest to - Rome or Constantinople?

7. What mountain range separated Spain/Iberia from Gaul/France?

8. According to your map, which time period (use the dates from your map key) gained the greatest amount of land for the Roman Empire?

9. What man-made physical feature was more than likely built to protect Roman forces from Barbarians (outsiders) in Britain/England?

10. What body of water did the Roman Empire have to cross to conquer (take over) the island of Britain?

Bonus 11. What "modern" words do you think we get from Slavs and from Dalmatia?

Step #3 - Complete one of the readings listed below. The answers to the questions will be completed on a piece of loose-leaf notebook paper. Check-in with me once completed.









Step #4 - Complete the following

Social Studies 6 Unit 8 Rome Mapskills Review 2015-2016

Online Passcode: WA9ZE5MU3

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Friday

February 5, 2016

Rome: Roman Republic

Step #1 - Complete any assignments from Thursday which were not finished the day before.

Step #2 - Complete vocabulary or review vocabulary.


Step #3 -

A. Make a new graphic organizer. Use the Essential Question #2 - Was the Roman Republic Democratic? In the answer section, please add the following: 1 - Aeneid, 2 - Etruscans, 3 - Roman Republic, 4 - Cincinnatus, 5 - Struggles in the Republic . Answer the question by using the numbers to guide your responses.

B. Watch the video located below.

Journals Through History: Ancient Rome: The Eternal City [17:46]

http://app.discoveryeducation.com/player/view/assetGuid/1524F9FB-0302-4283-9D05-BCE42A4C6C1D

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Monday

February 8, 2016

Rome: Republic



Step #1 - Get our graphic organizer from Friday.

Step#2 - Review the three video clips from the video on Friday - Republic, Law of the Twelve Tables and Cincinnatus.

Step #3 - Go through powerpoint/class handout. Set-up Roman Republic for the class: Plebeians, Patricians, Assembly, Consuls and Senate.

The power point located below will provide you with information needed for the lesson.



Step #4 - Complete these two questions: 1.) What are some similarities and differences with the Roman Republic and Athenian Democracy? and 2.) How is the Roman Republic similar and different to the U.S. Republic?





Tuesday

February 9, 2016

Rome: Republic/Punic Wars

Step #1 - Review the questions


1.) What are some similarities and differences with the Roman Republic and Athenian Democracy? and 2.) How is the Roman Republic similar and different to the U.S. Republic?

We will discuss as a whole group.


Step#2 - Punic Wars


We will focus on the later years of the Roman Republic. Add to your graphic organizer the following points under the topic: Military, Punic Wars: Rome vs. Carthage and Generals' Influence.


Rome's Military Plan

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Ancient Rome: Battle Time

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http://app.discoveryeducation.com/player/view/assetGuid/01F2C69F-3A5B-4F22-8950-73F62E9AE5D7



Step #3 - Was the Roman Republic democratic?

Using a scale of 1 - 10, with 1 being the least democratic and 10 being the most democratic, provide a minimum of three supporting details to prove your point.

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Class Discussion/Review


Ancient-Rome-Fort-Ruins.jpg
Ancient-Rome-Map-284-337-AD.jpg


February 10, 2016

Wednesday

Ancient Rome: Republic to Empire


Step #1 - Was the Roman Republic democratic? (the question is asking how much of a democracy was the Republic.......like how much freedoms, rights, etc.)

Using a scale of 1 - 10, with 1 being the least democratic and 10 being the most democratic, provide a minimum of three supporting details to prove your point. Complete this assignment on a loose-leaf piece of notebook paper, using paragraph format, in a minimum of 5 sentences. Title your paper the EQ please. Give to me once completed.

Step #2 - Complete these reviews on ancient Rome. Use your notes to assist you as needed.

EQ#1 - VA7HY5SY9

EQ#2 - GY3CE7LY4



Rome-Military-Standard-Soldiers-Marching.jpgRome-Military-Standard.jpg



Step #3 - Make a graphic organizer for EQ#3 -

How did Rome's transition from Republic to Empire impact its citizens?

Add these topics (front page) - Crisis in Rome, Julius Caesar, Civil War, Octavian/Augustus, Growth of Empire, to the answer column. Watch the videos and go through the notes just below to "answer" the topics.


Leaders of Ancient Rome(Sulla, Julius Caesar and Augustus)

[10:44]

http://app.discoveryeducation.com/player/view/assetGuid/01F2C69F-3A5B-4F22-8950-73F62E9AE5D7


1.) Crisis In Rome

As the Romans' territory grew, problems arose in the republic. Rich citizens were getting richer, and many leaders feared that violence would erupt between rich and poor.

* Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus were among the first leaders to address Rome's problems - 133 BCE. Both brothers served in the Roman Assembly. Both brothers were murdered for attempting to provide farms, food and benefits for Rome's poor people.


The Story of Tiberius Gracchus

[01:36]

http://app.discoveryeducation.com/player/view/assetGuid/1524F9FB-0302-4283-9D05-BCE42A4C6C1D


* In the late 100s BC another social change nearly led to the end of the republic. Consul and general, Gaius Marius encouraged poor people to join the army. Because of his generosity to the troops, soldiers were now loyal to the generals, not to Rome!

* Another politician, Lucius Cornelius Sulla, became consul in 88 BCE. Sulla came into conflict with Marius, which led to war in Rome. In the end, Sulla defeated Marius, and named himself dictator and used his power to punish his enemies.

2.) Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar’s defeat of Pompey led to the end of the Roman Republic and the founding of the Roman Empire.

  • Caesar was originally Pompey’s ally in the First Triumvirate (three men ruling the government).

  • Caesar’s victory in Gaul gave him the political strength to defeat Pompey. He was elected dictator - for life!

  • Some members of the Roman Senate were worried about Caesar’s growing power, and had him assassinated (killed).

Julius Caesar

[01:44]

http://app.discoveryeducation.com/player/view/assetGuid/1524F9FB-0302-4283-9D05-BCE42A4C6C1D


3.) Civil War

  • A civil war (fighting between people in the same country) broke out between Octavian, Caesar's nephew, and Marc Antony, Caesar's friend and Antony's wife, Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt. Generals took sides hoping to gain wealth and power for themselves.

  • In 30 BCE, Octavian’s forces won the war against Egypt and Mark Antony and Cleopatra both killed themselves. This left Octavian with no one to challenge his claim as ruler of the Roman Empire.


4.) Octavian/Augustus

  • When Octavian took the throne, he added Caesar to his name out of respect for his uncle. Octavian said he was giving all power back to the Senate. In reality, Octavian had total power, however, the Senate was given jobs that kept them in position, and "happy". The Roman Senate gave Octavian the name Augustus, which means important decision.

  • Augustus united the empire by naming himself the sole military commander. The armies of Rome were now loyal to him alone and there was no more internal fighting.

  • The three branches of the original Roman republic: Senate, Assembly and Consuls, were still in place; however, their power was severely limited and controlled by the power of the emperor.

Why Does It Matter?

Rome’s transformation from a Republic to an Empire meant that the citizens no longer had a say in who ruled them. Instead, the title of emperor was passed down through family lines.

5.) Growth of the Empire

The Roman Empire expanded quickly in its first 100 years.

  • During his rule, Augustus made several reforms to the government, including the establishment of a dynasty. Under the new dynastic tradition, the position of emperor was passed on to the descendants of the previous emperor. This process was often marked by violence and disorder between the emperor’s relatives. Ambitious would-be emperors and their supporters did not hesitate to sabotage or even murder anyone they saw as a threat to their possible claim to the throne.
    • Augustus was succeeded by his stepson, Tiberius (42 BCE–37 CE). It was believed that Tiberius ordered the murder of one of the challengers to his claim as emperor. He was an efficient ruler, but he was considered cold and unlikeable.
    • Tiberius was followed by the notoriously cruel Caligula (12 BCE–41 CE), who is believed to have gone insane after an illness. He was finally killed by the Praetorian guards and succeeded by his uncle Claudius (10 BCE–54 CE).
    • Claudius was believed to have been poisoned by his wife Agrippina, who wanted her son, Nero, to become emperor.
    • Nero (37–54) was one of the most notorious of the Roman emperors. He had his mother assassinated and allowed a fire to destroy the city of Rome. He was the last emperor of the dynastic line of Julius and Augustus Caesar.
  • There was a strong sense of consistency between Roman cities, which were all designed and built to look similar to each other. All Roman cities had a theater, religious temples dedicated to various gods, aqueducts to carry water, and public bathhouses. Buildings in even the most distant provinces were designed to look like those in Rome.
  • The chaos and violence that often accompanied the succession at the highest levels of Roman government, did not affect Roman society, which was often quite stable. In fact, the beginning of the Roman Empire was also the beginning of a time of peace and prosperity within the Roman Empire. Begun by Emperor Augustus, this time became known as the Augustan Age or known as the Pax Romana - Roman Peace.
  • Citizens throughout the Roman Empire were also treated the same. They spoke Latin, used the same currency, and used the same calendar (the Julian calendar, which was named after Julius Caesar, its creator). All of these elements meant that all cities and people throughout the empire were connected. This was even true of cities that Rome conquered and added to its growing empire.
  • Although many of the internal struggles of Rome ended during the Pax Romana, Rome continued its conquest of other cities and civilizations.Conquests were chosen with care, based on how the new territory could benefit the empire. Rome also offered some members of the conquered civilizations the chance to become citizens.
  • The expansion of the empire brought great material wealth to Rome, both in money and natural resources. It also brought a great deal of intellectual and cultural diversity. The empire included Greeks, Celts, Gauls, Egyptians, and Africans. Features of all of their cultures were adopted and added to the culture of Rome.
  • Despite this diversity, the Roman Empire wanted to make the lands and people it had conquered Roman.The standardization of architecture in all conquered cities made the provinces look like Rome. The common language, money, religion, and calendar made the people speak and behave like Romans. The entertainment made them happy to think of themselves as Roman. This commonality helped to keep people happy and loyal and made the empire prosperous.

Why Does It Matter?

The Pax Romana, or Roman Peace, brought an end to the internal fighting that had plagued Rome since the time of Caesar. During this period, Rome’s expansion brought great wealth and cultural diversity to the Empire and the people living in it. Many people were happy to become a part of Rome because of the many advantages the Romans brought, including better architecture, education, and health. A common language, calendar, religion, and currency helped tie the Empire together.

Most of the empire’s expansion took place under Augustus and Hadrian.


Julius Caesar - Dictator of Rome
Julius Caesar - Dictator of Rome

Marc Antony - Caesar's Right-Hand Man
Marc Antony - Caesar's Right-Hand Man

Octavian - Caesar Augustus
Octavian - Caesar Augustus





Thursday

February 11, 2016

Rome: Roman Empire


How did Rome's transition from Republic to Empire impact its citizens?

Step #1 - Working with your group, finish reading the information posted from the day before. Add the main ideas/details to your graphic organizer.

Step #2 - Be prepared to review the key points from your graphic organizer.

Step #3 - Answer the EQ Activity.

When Octavian defeated Marc Antony in 30 BCE, he seized full control of Rome and declared himself an emperor. With this historic act, the Roman Republic came to an end and the Roman Empire was born. In this activity, you will focus how the shift from the republic to empire affected life for ordinary Romans.

You will choose ONE of the topic statements listed below and prove it.

1.) "Ordinary Romans were better off during the Roman Empire than during the Roman Republic."

2.) "Ordinary Romans were better off during the Roman Republic than during the Roman Empire."

To assist you in your plan of proving the statement, keep the following questions in mind.

1.) Was political and social life better for ordinary Romans during the Roman Empire than it had been during the Roman Republic? Explain why or why not.

2.) Did the Roman people benefit from the transformation of the republic into an empire? Explain why or why not.

Objective: Create a political campaign advertisement supporting one side of the argument (statement) and refuting (going against) the other. The poster will focus on:

1.) "Ordinary Romans were better off during the Roman Empire than during the Roman Republic."

OR

2.) "Ordinary Romans were better off during the Roman Republic than during the Roman Empire."


Requirements:
1. ) Color
2.) Neat, Organized and Presentable
3.) A minimum of three supporting details.
4.) A minimum of two refuting (going against) details.
5.) A title with the statement in it: numbers 1 or 2 from above.


Image result for political campaign posters by students
Image result for political campaign posters by students
Image result for political campaign posters by students
Image result for political campaign posters by students
Image result for political campaign posters by students
Image result for political campaign posters by students


Friday

February 12, 2016

Rome: Roman Empire

Step#1 - Finish the advertisement poster from the day before. All directions are located on the previous day - located just above. When finished - please hand me the poster. Thank you.

Step#2 - Complete this review......

Social Studies 6 Unit 8 Rome EQ#3 Review 2015-2016

Online Passcode: NE4CY7H



Step #3 - Complete a timeline of the Roman World. This will help your organize the key events you have learned up to this point.


Directions: Using a loose-lead sheet of notebook paper, draw a line (vertically or horizontally) on the paper. Add the dates onto the line. After the date, include the event, with a brief explanation, on the timeline.


753 BCE

509 BCE

450 BCE

264 BCE to 146 BCE

44 BCE

44 BCE to 30 BCE

27 BCE


external image USHist1.png

external image timeline-template-example.png
external image americantimeline.jpg



Monday

February 15, 2016

Rome: Empire


"Snow Day" - No School




Tuesday

February 16, 2016

Rome: Empire


Step #1 - Make a graphic organizer for EQ#4 - How did the spread of Roman Culture influence life throughout the Roman Empire? Add the following topics to the answer part: Pax Romana, Emperors, Trade, Science & Engineering, Art & Architecture, Language & Literature, Religion and Social Hierarchy.

Step#2 - Introduce the EQ with a few notes. Add the main ideas to the graphic organizer.






Augustus ruled the Roman Empire for more than 40 years – known as the
Augustan Age.
During this time, the empire continued to expand and protect its land.
The powerful Roman army defeated one enemy after another. Soldiers were well
trained.
These forces were divided into legions,army units that numbered about 6,000
men each. The legions were divided into smaller
units that could be moved swiftly.
As Rome’s population grew, its army also expanded in size and strength. Under the
leaderships of ambitious generals, Rome’s
highly trained soldiers set out to conquer new territories one by one.
Rome now controlled all the land around the Mediterranean and into western
Europe and Britain.



Architects and engineers built new public buildings, baths, arenas,
temples, amphitheaters, the colosseum,


aqueducts, lighthouses, and roads.
To bring new treasures home– and to keep control over the

empire – Rome built a communications network of roads and ships.
Throughout the empire trade increased: olive oil, wine, pottery, marble,
grain, glass, horses.
Literature became a focus with the epic poem the Aeneid by Virgil -

about the founding of Rome.
Augustus succeeded in bringing peace and wise leadership to Rome and
her conquered lands or provinces.
Locals customs were not changed making Roman domination less
painful.
For the next 200 years – some emperors continued these policies. These

were good times for citizens of Rome. The came to be known as the Pax
Romana” or Roman Peace.



Step #3 - Watch the video on Roman City. Add information to your graphic organizer.



Below is a link to the video we watched in class. Feel free to rewatch the entire program or just parts to assist you as needed.

PBS - //Roman City// - //David Macaulay// - YouTube

www.youtube.com/watch?v=9K7Yds8bWz4‎his


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Wednesday

February 17, 2016

Rome: Empire


Step#1: Get out EQ#4 Graphic Organizer.

Step #2: Continue video on the Roman City.

Step #3: Review information on your graphic organizer with your group. As a class.

Step #4:





Rome's Growing Empire_
  • There was a strong sense of consistency between Roman cities, which were all designed and built to look similar to each other. All Roman cities had a theater, religious temples dedicated to various gods, aqueducts to carry water, and public bathhouses. Buildings in even the most distant provinces were designed to look like those in Rome.
  • The chaos and violence that often accompanied the succession at the highest levels of Roman government, did not affect Roman society, which was often quite stable. In fact, the beginning of the Roman Empire was also the beginning of a time of peace and prosperity within the Roman Empire. Begun by Emperor Augustus, this time became known as the Augustan Age or known as the Pax Romana - Roman Peace.
  • Citizens throughout the Roman Empire were also treated the same. They spoke Latin, used the same currency, and used the same calendar (the Julian calendar, which was named after Julius Caesar, its creator). All of these elements meant that all cities and people throughout the empire were connected. This was even true of cities that Rome conquered and added to its growing empire.
  • Although many of the internal struggles of Rome ended during the Pax Romana, Rome continued its conquest of other cities and civilizations.Conquests were chosen with care, based on how the new territory could benefit the empire. Rome also offered some members of the conquered civilizations the chance to become citizens.
  • The expansion of the empire brought great material wealth to Rome, both in money and natural resources. It also brought a great deal of intellectual and cultural diversity. The empire included Greeks, Celts, Gauls, Egyptians, and Africans. Features of all of their cultures were adopted and added to the culture of Rome.
  • Despite this diversity, the Roman Empire wanted to make the lands and people it had conquered Roman.The standardization of architecture in all conquered cities made the provinces look like Rome. The common language, money, religion, and calendar made the people speak and behave like Romans. The entertainment made them happy to think of themselves as Roman. This commonality helped to keep people happy and loyal and made the empire prosperous.

Arena-France.jpg
An Arena in France - Romans loved their sports!

Sports & Contests
Sports were important to the Romans. Paintings on vases, frescoes [wet plaster], and stone show Romans playing ball, including a version of soccer. Roman girls are shown exercising with handheld weights and throwing an egg-shaped ball. Balls were made of different materials such as wool, hair, linen, sponges, and pig bladders wrapped in string.
Some Roman sporting events took place in the Colosseum, amphitheaters, and the Circus Maximus. Wild Beast fights, battles between ships, and gladiator contests attracted Roman spectators by the thousands. Chariot racing was held in the Circus Maximus, and the drivers wore team colors of red, white, green, and blue.

Circus-Maximus.jpg
The Circus Maximus - Means the Biggest Circle!

Circus-Maximus-Drawing.jpg
The Circus Maximus - Housed Chariot Races - AKA Nascar Style!

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Circus-Maximus-Modern.jpg
Modern Day Aerial Shot of the remnants of the Circus Maximus

theater-1.jpg
Roman Theater - Romans watched comedies and tragedies.

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Daily Life in Rome

Roman society was dominated by men, was very hierarchical, traditional, and family oriented. The structure of Roman society was mirrored by the structure of the Roman family. The rich and poor had very different lives in Rome, as did men and women.

During the early republic:
  • In the family, the power resided in the hands of the paterfamilias (father of the family); below him were subordinate men, then the women and enslaved persons.
  • In a patrician family, there might also be clients, who were plebeians who had pledged loyalty.
  • A small group of rich men of the patrician class formed the governing body, the Senate.
  • Plebeians were more numerous than patricians but could not participate in government.
  • Plebeians fought to gain increased political power and to establish the Twelve Tables, the basic law code of ancient Rome.

After the establishment of the empire:
  • Society was still dominated by men, but women had more of a life outside the home.
    • The father was the head, called paterfamilias, or "father of the family", had complete control over family matters: marriage, education, punishments.
    • Women were not full citizens, however, the husband often sought her advice. Some had strong influence on families and politics.
    • Wealthy women had great independence: own land, run businesses, sell property, manage the household, study, move about in public.
    • Poorer women spent most of their time working or helping their husbands. They were allowed to move about in public.
  • Power shifted into the hands of the emperors.
    • To keep people from rioting, the Roman government provided "bread and circuses," or free grain and shows. Romans of all classes flocked to the chariot races and gladiator contests.
  • Rich lived in large, comforting house with large rooms, fine furniture, and beautiful gardens. In the center was an inner court called an atrium. Wealthy Romans also had homes called villas on their country estates.
  • Poor lived in crowded, noisy and dirty apartments. Garbage was tossed in the streets, thieves prowled the streets at night. Apartments were up to six stories high and often collapsed because they were so poorly built.
  • The Romans worshiped many gods and goddesses.
    • These gods were honored by praying and offering food. Homes had altars for their household gods.
    • Greek gods were popular in Rome, and given Roman names.
    • As the empire grew larger, Romans came into contact with other religions. These religions were allowed, as long as they did not threaten the government. Those that did - Judaism and Christianity - faced severe hardships - persecution and even death.
  • Increase in enslaved people until they greatly outnumbered the plebeians, putting the plebeians out of work.
  • Slavery supported the empire.
    • Enslaved people could buy their freedom on occasion.
    • about 1/3 of the Roman population were slaves.
    • Teachers, doctors, artisans, farmers, miners, etc.
    • Slave revolts rocked the empire, and instilled a long-lasting fear of slavery in the ruling class.



Roman-Apartments-Daily-Life.jpg
Apartments for the Poor. Known as Insula - or Islands.

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Roman-Apartments-Corner-View.jpg
Poor People's Apartments were crowded, dirty, and unclean.

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Roman-Apartment-Insula-Labeled.jpg


Apartments-Drawing.jpg
The first floor quite often held shops; while above would house dozens of families.

Roman-House.jpg
Roman Villa - Home to the wealthy.

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Roman-House-3.jpg
Villas has numerous rooms - each with their own purpose.

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Roman-House-Labeled.jpg
Villas quite often has an open area where people could enjoy flowers, fountains and fresh air.

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Roman-House-Labeled-2.jpg
Villas may be located in urban areas with other wealthy inhabitants of the city.

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Roman-Villa.jpg
A villa such as this required many servants/slaves.

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Roman-Villa-Hales.jpg
Villas were usually located away from the hustle and bustle of the city.

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Roman Genius

By developing roads, aqueducts, a common currency, a code of law, and introducing practical reforms, Rome created order over an immense area with an extraordinary diversity of people and languages, which allowed the spread of its cultural achievements.
  • Roman engineers and architects develop techniques and styles that are uniquely their own.
  • Communal baths spread throughout the empire.
  • Invention of concrete explains in part why so many Roman buildings and roads throughout the empire still survive.
    • Roads and bridges connected the empire.

Uncovering more of Britain's 'lost' Roman roads: Latest maps reveal a key route and fort used to conquer Northern England

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3436936/Britain-s-lost-Roman-roads-discovered-2-000-years-Maps-reveal-new-key-route-used-conquer-Northern-England.html

external image 2000px-Roman_Roads_in_Britannia.svg.pngexternal image 30FEA9B100000578-0-image-a-61_1454937106299.jpg

  • Rome uses Greek building styles but also added their own architectural strategies (vaults, arches, use of concrete) to build larger, taller, and heavier buildings.
    • Aqueducts brought fresh, clean drinking water. They carried water to Rome's homes, bathhouses, fountains and public toilets.
    • Sewers removed waste.
    • Theaters, amphitheaters, circuses and arenas provided entertainments
  • Greek doctor, Galen, brought medical ideas to Rome; such as Anatomy - the study of the human body.
  • Ptolemy, and astronomer, from Alexandria, Egypt, mapped over 1,000 stars, and studied the motions of the planets and stars.
  • Roman artists were known for their: mosaics on buildings, fresco paintings - a type of painting done on wet plaster, and sculptors in the Greek style.
    • Greco-Roman art strongly influences Renaissance (1350's - 1600's) artists.
baths_caracalla_cutaway.jpg
Roman Baths - Spa, Gymnasium and social gathering!

Baths-Drawing.jpg
Roman were able to enjoy various types of rooms.

Baths-Outside-England.jpg
Depending on the size of the city; Romans had access to many baths.

Circular_Roman_Bath-Caldaria.jpg
Modern view into the ancient Roman World!


Why Does It Matter?

Rome’s cultural achievements would not have had such a broad impact if Rome had not had a well-developed infrastructure, bureaucracy, and administration. The infrastructure created order. Because of this organization, some cultures actually welcomed conquest because it brought order. In general, Rome did not enslave the conquered peoples; they became citizens and thus could be taxed. Roman cultural achievements were able to spread far and wide because of these conquests. Many of the achievements of Rome still impact our lives today.
The technological achievements of ancient Rome, such as roads and aqueducts, helped its leaders maintain control over the expanding empire.

Diana-Mosaic.jpg
Mosaic - Diana - The Goddess of the Hunt


Dionysus-Mosaic.jpg
Mosaic - Dionysis/Bacchus - The God of Wine

Gods-Mosaic.jpg
Mosaic of Roman God

Medusa-Mosaic.jpg
Mosaic - Medusa

Neptune-Mosaic.jpg
Mosaic - Neptune - The God of the Sea

Neptun-Pirates-Mosaic.jpg
Mosaic - Neptune and the Pirates!
Gods-Chart.jpg

The Development of Language and Literature

Latin is a practical language for a practical people. Its ability to absorb the innovations of other cultures and still retain its own identity underlines its continued existence in scientific and legal terminology. Although people do not speak it today, it has had a significant impact on the descendants of the Roman Empire. This language allowed Rome to be home to some of the greatest authors in the ancient world.
  • Latin became the common language of the Roman Empire.
  • Latin became the official language of the Roman Catholic Church.
  • Latin is still used in terminology for law, science, and mathematics. The spread of Latin transformed the languages of European tribes, resulting in the formation of various Romance languages: Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Romanian.
  • English contains many Latin-based words: Senate, Republic, Veto, Circus, Et Cetera
  • The Latin alphabet and script became more widespread than any other and became the basis for the modern English alphabet.
  • Virgil wrote the epic poem about the founding of Rome, the Aeneid.
  • Ovid (AHV-uhd) wrote poems about Roman mythology.
  • Horace wrote satires, which poked fun at human weaknesses. He also wrote Odes, or poems that express trong emotions about life.
  • Livy wrote his History of Rome about 10 BCE, which describes Rome's rise to power.




Temple.jpg
Temple-2.jpg
TEmple-Maison-Carrée.jpeg
Temple-Marcus-Aggripa.jpg

Temple-Of-Hercules-Forum-Boarium-Greek-Style.jpg






Good-Emperors-Pax-Romana.jpg
The "Good Emperors" of the Pax Romana - Roman Peace.



external image 220px-Hadrians_Wall_map.svg.png
external image 220px-Hadrian%27s_wall_at_Greenhead_Lough.jpg


external image 220px-Hadrians_Wall_from_Housesteads1_crop.jpg


external image 220px-Corbridge_stangate.jpg
The Roman Forum, the place where the Law of Twelve Tables was kept, was the heart of the city of Rome.It was the site of important government buildings and temples. Government and religion were only part of what made the Forum so important, though. It was also a popular meeting place for Roman citizens. People met there to shop, chat, and gossip. The word forum means "public place".

Forum-Drawing.jpg
The Roman Forum - A Drawing


Forum-Ruins.jpg
The Roman Forum - A modern aerial view of the forum ruins.


Forum-Ruins-Name-Tags.jpg
Roman Forum - Modern Day ruins with labels.

Viva Roma No. V ("Mambo #5" by Lou Bega)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=me4E5wDCK2Q


Pompeii ("Bang Bang (My Lover Shot Me Down)" by Nancy Sinatra)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1E9AL0r-uY4

Thursday

February 18, 2016

Rome: Empire


Step #1 - Vocab and graphic organizers out on desk.

Step #2 - Complete reviews on EQ#3


1.Complete Vocab EQ#3 Review – CE9FA42.Complete EQ#3 Review – GE4WE8
Step #3 - Complete Roman City Project

Design your own Roman city – on graph paper.
Follow Roman City rules of designInclude at least 3 geographic features in or around your city (Natural: mountains, rivers, valleys, plains, seas, etc.)Include at least one example from each sub-topic from EQ#4 graphic organizer: Emperor, Trade, Art & Architecture, Science and Engineering, Language and Literature, Religion and Social Hiearchy……..draw and label them in your Roman CityFYI = you may have several of the same items. Example, you may wish to have several arenas, theaters, baths, rich areas, poor areas, bridges, temples, etc….but again, you must have at least one example for each sub-topic in your city.Name your Roman CityColor your Roman CityWrite a minimum of two paragraphs (5 to 7 sentences per paragraph) explaining your Roman City. Be sure to explain the following: How did geography effect the location and development of your city? What components did you add to make your city Roman? How will these components make your city prosperous or successful? How does the Roman Culture impact the people in the Empire

These links and visuals may assist you with planning a Roman City....

http://www.ancient.eu/Roman_Architecture/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Roman_architecture#City_design


Roman cities were planned with:

**Roman cities had two major streets running East –West and North-South intersecting at the forum, which was the center of commerce in the city. (9C)

**"Virtually all Roman cities had schools, and the larger ones had libraries. Streets were generally paved after Julius Caesar’s time and large centers had pavements." (9C)



**"The Roman Republic design cities following the pattern of a military camp." (5C)

**Romans in the third century built walls around most of their major cities because of increasing threats of invasions from the northern "barbarians". (9C)


Notice the wall that protects the city.  There are four entrances to the city.
Notice the wall that protects the city. There are four entrances to the city.

The city of Rome was planned out in the usual Roam Pattern.
The city of Rome was planned out in the usual Roam Pattern.
Roman cities were planned out using a grid.  A Forum was usually in the middle, where two streets intersected one another.
Roman cities were planned out using a grid. A Forum was usually in the middle, where two streets intersected one another.

The city is by a small river for fresh clean drinking water.  Fertile fields surround the city providing food for the inhabitants.
The city is by a small river for fresh clean drinking water. Fertile fields surround the city providing food for the inhabitants.

This Roman City is located on a river.  A bridge was constructed to allow the inhabitants to safely cross the river.  Also, there are three ports for boats to use for trade and transportation.
This Roman City is located on a river. A bridge was constructed to allow the inhabitants to safely cross the river. Also, there are three ports for boats to use for trade and transportation.
Ancient Roman water system and a modern water system.
Ancient Roman water system and a modern water system.
A Roman Aqueduct bringing fresh clean drinking water to a Roman City.  Notice the water is stored in a large tank for distribution.
A Roman Aqueduct bringing fresh clean drinking water to a Roman City. Notice the water is stored in a large tank for distribution.

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Christianity

The power point is located just below.


The Graphic Organizer is located just below.



Students will review Christianity with a video on World Religions. It is the same style of video used when learning about the other world religions. As you watch the video, fill in the remainder of the chart. Allow time for periodic stopping for discussion.

The link to the Christianity video is located just below. Feel free to stop and watch as our leisure.

http://app.discoveryeducation.com/player/view/assetGuid/505F4547-F8FE-4633-B6A0-F97DCD12CD41

The below video link focuses on Christianity in the Roman Empire. Watch the first 7 minutes. The video is shorter and focuses on the main concepts from class.

http://app.discoveryeducation.com/player/view/assetGuid/7102AF47-0F9F-423C-9BE5-F637AED436D3



//Christianity for Kids// - Woodlands Resources

resources.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/homework/religion/christian.htm
All of the information below was obtained from the website above. The information is to be used in an educational format.
Additional websites as needed.

URI //Kids// :: World Religions

www.uri.org/kids/world_chri.htm

//Christianity for Children//

atschool.eduweb.co.uk/carolrb/christianity/


Monday and Tuesday

February 22 and 23, 2016

Rome: Christianity



https://sites.google.com/site/worldreligionsforkids/christianity


Christianity is the world's biggest religion, with about 2.2 billion followers worldwide. It is based on the teachings of Jesus Christ who lived in the Holy Land 2,000 years ago.
Through its missionary activity Christianity has spread to most parts of the globe.

Place of Origin
Israel
Founder
Jesus of Nazareth
Sacred Text
The Bible - Old and New Testaments
Sacred Building
Church, Chapel, Cathedral
Holy Places
Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Nazareth, Lourdes (a popular place of pilgrimage), Rome, Canterbury
Major Festivals
Easter, Christmas,
Main Branches
(Denominations)
Anglican, Roman Catholic, Free Churches, Orthodox, Reformed,

Who is the founder of Christianity?
Jesus Christ, who was crucified around A.D. 30 in Jerusalem, is the founder of Christianity.

Who is Jesus Christ?
Jesus Christ is the Son of God. He came to earth to teach about love and fellowship. He represents the person that all Christians must strive to be.
Jesus was a Jew who was born about 2000 years ago in Bethlehem. Jesus lived for 33 years before being crucified by the Romans.

What other names is Jesus known by?
  • Son of God
  • Light of the World
  • Lamb of God
  • The Good Shepherd.

Who are Christians?
Christians are people who believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, and who follow his teachings and those of the Christian churches that grew up after his death.
Christians believe that Jesus rose from the dead and appeared to his disciples (followers) to show everyone that there is another life with one, eternal, loving God.

Why are Christians called Christians?
Christians get their name from Jesus Christ who is God's son.

What do Christians believe?
Christians believe that Jesus Christ was the Son of God and that:
  • God sent his Son to earth to save humanity from the consequences of its sins
  • Jesus was fully human, and experienced this world in the same way as other human beings of his time
  • Jesus was tortured and gave his life on the Cross (At the Crucifixion)
  • Jesus rose from the dead on the third day after his Crucifixion (the Resurrection)
Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah promised in the Old Testament
Christians believe that there is only one God, but that this one God consists of 3 "persons"
    • God the Father
    • God the Son
    • The Holy Spirit
Christians believe that God made the world.

Where do Christians worship?
The Christian place of worship is called a Church. They are often built in the shape of a cross with the altar facing east towards the rising sun.
Photographs of inside a church
The Christian spiritual leaders are called priests or ministers. (vicars).
What is Christian worship like?
Christian worship involves praising God in music, speech, readings from scripture, prayers of various sorts, a sermon and various holy ceremonies.

What is the Christian holy book called?
The Bible is the Christian holy book. It is divided into the Old and New Testaments. Parts of the writing contained in the Old Testament are also sacred to Jewish and Muslim people.

What are the two main Christian festivals?
The two main Christian festivals are Easter and Christmas. They are major milestones in the Western secular calendar.
What are the most important Christian Festivals?
The most important Christian festivals are: Lent, Easter and Christmas.
For the other festivals visit our page about the Church Year.

What are the Christian symbols?
external image crosssml.gifThe cross is the main symbol. It reminds Christians that Jesus died on the cross to save them.
external image dove.gifThe dove is the symbol of the holy spirit and peace.
external image fish.jpgThe fish symbol was created using the Greek letters which spell out ICHTHUS : Jesus Christ God's Son Saviour.
The Romans persecuted the Christians and it became dangerous for them to meet. So the Christians devised a secret code. They drew half a fish in the sand. If a person completed the fish, they knew he or she was a believer too. Under the fish sign the Christians wrote the Greek word fish.
external image fishgreek.gif

These letters stood for: Jesus Christ God's Son Saviour

What are the 10 Commandments?
From the Holy Bible, King James version. Exodus 20:3-18 (abridged)
1. Thou shalt have no other gods before me
2. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image
3. Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain
4. Remember the sabbath day and keep it holy
5. Honour thy father and thy mother
6. Thou shalt not kill
7. Thou shalt not commit adultery
8. Thou shalt not steal
9. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour
10. Thou shalt not covet any thing that is thy neighbour's



How is Christianity similar to other religions?
Christianity shares a number of beliefs and practices with other religions, particularly Judaism and Islam. With Judaism and Islam, Christians believe in one God, who created the universe and all that is in it. All believe that this God is active in history, guiding and teaching his people.
Christianity and Judaism share the same roots. The Old Testament and the Torah (Jewish Holy Book) have the same content. The Jews are awaiting the coming of a Messiah or Saviour, while Christians believe that Jesus Christ was the Saviour and are now waiting for his second coming.

Which religion did Christianity develop from?
Christianity originally developed as a part of Judaism. Jesus was a Jew.

How is Christianity different from Judaism?
Christianity came to regard Jesus as in some sense God's presence in human form. This was unacceptable to most Jews.
Judaism is defined by a covenant made between God and the Jewish people. Part of this covenant is the Law, a set of religious and ethical rules and principles. Most Christians came to regard both this covenant and Law as in some sense superseded by Jesus' teaching and the community that he established. On the night he died, Jesus talked about establishing a "new covenant" based on his death and resurrection.
Jews believe that there is one God like Christians do, but they do not believe that this one God consists of 3 "persons".

Why are there different branches of Christianity?
There are different branches of Christianity because some Christians worship in different ways.
What are the different branches (denominations) of Christians?
There are several denominations of the Christian faith, however all Christians share common beliefs.

Church of England - Anglicanism
The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England.

Roman Catholic
The Catholic Church is the oldest institution in the western world. It can trace its history back almost 2000 years.

Baptists
For Baptists, the church is not just a particular place or building, but rather a family of believers, committed to Christ, to one another and to the service of God in the world.

Methodist
The calling of the Methodist Church is to respond to the gospel of God's love in Christ and to live out its discipleship in worship and mission.

Orthodox
The Orthodox Church shares much with the other Christian churches in the belief that God revealed himself in Jesus Christ, and a belief in the incarnation of Christ, his crucifixion and resurrection.

Seventh-day Adventist
The belief which makes Seventh-day Adventists really stand out, though it is not the most important part of the faith, is the belief that Saturday is the Sabbath (the day of worship)




Students were introduced to Christianity. They will focus on how Christianity was founded....and how Christianity was able to rise to power in the Roman Empire. For students who were absent, they need to read the information below on Christianity and complete the questions from Ancient-Rome-Christianity.docx.




Emperor Constantine - Christian Emperor
Emperor Constantine - Christian Emperor




Constantine ("Come On, Eileen" by Dexy's Midnight Runners)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uYhMQNPa8mM



Jesus of Nazareth - The Messiah or Savior
Jesus of Nazareth - The Messiah or Savior



external image christianity_spread_to_300.jpg
external image 400px-Mapspreadofxity.jpg

The Diffusion of Christianity

Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire and other parts of Europe for a number of reasons and with a variety of results.
  • After Jesus’s death, his disciples spread his word and convinced others to become Christians.
  • Because Christians put God before the emperor, they were persecuted by Roman officials.
  • Christianity’s message of equality, hope, and salvation made it appealing to many, especially those in the lower classes.
  • As Rome’s culture spread, so did Christianity.
  • Roman Emperor Constantine adopted Christianity in 312, ending the persecution of Christians.

Why Does It Matter?

Christianity overcame many obstacles to become a popular religion. Early worshipers suffered persecution and harassment for their beliefs until Christianity became widespread. Today, early adopters of radical ideas often endure public scrutiny and criticism until their ideas become accepted.Steles like this commemorated important events in Roman life. This one shows a Christian being immersed in water to be baptized.Key Players in the Spread of ChristianityMonks, missionaries, and the Christian church itself were important in the spread of Christianity throughout Europe.Missionaries traveled to areas where people were not Christian and convinced them to join their faith.Monasteries were communities for monks who dedicated their lives to prayer and service to God.Christianity spread from Jerusalem into Syria, Egypt, and elsewhere, until most Roman citizens were Christian.Why Does It Matter?The Christian religion spread rapidly. Some believers moved around to find new converts, and some servants of the church stayed in their communities to serve worshipers there. Missionaries are still active around the world, working to convert others to Christianity. The Church Splits by 1054, Christianity had spread across Europe, parts of Asia, and parts of Africa. But disagreements over how Christianity should be





Wednesday

February 23, 2016

Rome: Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire




external image EmpireMap5.jpg


external image MapEWRomanEmpire.jpg
The Fall of Rome
Mr.Donn.com

Rome had quite a run. First a monarchy, then a republic, then an empire – all roads led to Rome for over 1200 years. In the Mediterranean, Rome was in charge. During the Imperial period, Rome had some wonderful emperors. Rome also suffered from a series of bad, corrupt and just plain crazy emperors. There were lots of reasons why Rome fell.

Problems towards the end of the Empire included:


  • The empire was too large to govern effectively.
  • The army was not what it used to be. There was corruption in the military - dishonest generals and non-Roman soldiers (Barbarians).
  • Barbarians (Germanic Tribes) have entered the Roman Empire.....The Huns were pushing in and the Germanic Tribes honestly wanted protection. Many have adopted the Roman Customs. Also, many have become: soldiers, generals, and political leaders.

  • Civil wars broke out between different political groups.
  • Emperors were often selected by violence, or by birth, so the head of government was not always a capable (the best choice) leader.
  • The increased use of slaves put many Romans out of work
  • The rich became lazy and showed little interest in trying to solve Rome problems.
  • The poor were overtaxed and overworked. They were very unhappy.
  • Prices increased, trade decreased.
  • The population was shrinking due to starvation and disease. That made it difficult to manage farms and government effectively.
  • The Empire starting shrinking. The Huns, Visigoths, Franks, Vandals, Saxons and other barbarian tribes overran the empire.
The ancient Romans tried to solve some of their problems by splitting the Roman Empire in half, hoping that would make the empire easier to manage. Each side had an emperor, but the emperor in charge was the emperor of the western half, the half that included the city of Rome.

The Western Roman Empire did not do well. Instead of getting stronger, they became weaker. By 400 AD, it was pretty much over. The Huns, Franks, Vandals, Saxons, Visigoths – any of these barbarian tribes might have been the group that finally brought Rome down. They were all attacking various pieces of the Western Roman Empire. In 476 AD, the Visigoths sacked the city of Rome. Europe entered the Dark Ages.

The Easter Roman Empire received a new name – the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantine Empire did fine. It lasted for another 1000 years!


Rome Divides into Two

In 285 AD, Emperor Diocletian decided that the Roman Empire was too big to manage. He divided the Empire into two parts, the Eastern Roman Empire and the Western Roman Empire. Over the next hundred years or so, Rome would be reunited, split into three parts, and split in two again. Finally, in 395 AD, the empire was split into two for good. The Western Empire was ruled by Rome, the Eastern Empire was ruled by Constantinople.


external image eastern_western_roman_empire_476.jpg

Map of the Eastern and Western Roman Empire right before the fall

The "fall" of Rome discussed here is referring to the Western Roman Empire which was ruled by Rome. The Eastern Roman Empire became known as the Byzantium Empire and remained in power for another 1000 years.

The City of Rome is Sacked

The city of Rome was thought by many to be unconquerable. However, in 410 AD, a Germanic barbarian tribe called the Visigoths invaded the city. They looted the treasures, killed and enslaved many Romans, and destroyed many buildings. This was the first time in 800 years that the city of Rome had been sacked.

Rome Falls

In 476 AD, a Germanic barbarian by the name of Odoacer took control of Rome. He became king of Italy and forced the last emperor of Rome, Romulus Augustulus (14 year old boy), to give up his crown. Many historians consider this to be the end of the Roman Empire.

The Dark Ages Begins

With the fall of Rome, many changes occurred throughout Europe. Rome had provided a strong government, education, and culture. Now much of Europe fell into barbarianism. The next 500 years would be known as the Dark Ages of Europe.

Interesting Facts about the Fall of Rome

  • The Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, fell in 1453 to the Ottoman Empire.

  • Many poor people were glad to see Rome fall. They were starving to death while being taxed heavily by Rome.

  • Near the end of the Roman Empire, the city of Rome was no longer the capital. The city of Mediolanum (now Milan) was capital for a while. Later, the capital was moved to Ravenna.

  • Rome was sacked once again in 455 AD by Geiseric, King of the Vandals. The Vandals were an Eastern Germanic tribe. The term "vandalism" comes from the Vandals.

The link located below is very interesting. See how it may have influenced the fall of the Roman Empire.....and how it continued to impact Europe throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance!

http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2014/01/29/267598868/ancient-plagues-dna-revived-from-a-1-500-year-old-tooth?utm_content=socialflow&utm_campaign=nprfacebook&utm_source=npr&utm_medium=facebook



__

Tuesday

February 25, 2016

Rome: Review


Step #1 -

A. Social Studies 6 Unit 8 Rome EQ#5 Review 2015-2016

Online Passcode: MY3SU3



B. Social Studies 6 Unit 8 Rome Mapskills Review-3 2015-2016

Online Passcode: MU7JE5



C. Social Studies 6 Unit 8 Rome Vocab EQ#3 Review 2015-2016 (COPY 2)

Online Passcode: RA5ZY2XA3


D. Social Studies 6 Unit 8 Rome Vocab EQ#2 Review-3 15-2016

Online Passcode: CA5SE6N



Step #2 -

Watch the section on the Olympic Games. Begin with [8:30 and go to 12:20]

http://app.discoveryeducation.com/player/view/assetGuid/73AAE8C9-F60D-4D97-83F4-5564218B52A4



Step #3 -

Go to this website below. It is from the Olympic Committee - on the Ancient Olympics. Visit: History, Mythology, The Athlete and Sports Events.

http://www.olympic.org/ancient-olympic-games



Step#4 -

We will review as a whole group. If you are done before we get to this step, then you may work on something else till then. Thank you! :)




The Olympics in Ancient Greece


The first written records of the ancient Olympic Games date to 776 B.C., when a cook named Coroebus won the only event–a 192-meter footrace called the stade (the origin of the modern “stadium”)–to become the first Olympic champion. However, it is generally believed that the Games had been going on for many years by that time. Legend has it that Heracles (the Roman Hercules), son of Zeus and the mortal woman Alcmene, founded the Games, which by the end of the 6th century B.C had become the most famous of all Greek sporting festivals. The ancient Olympics were held every four years between August 6 and September 19 during a religious festival honoring Zeus. The Games were named for their location at Olympia, a sacred site located near the western coast of the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece. Their influence was so great that ancient historians began to measure time by the four-year increments in between Olympic Games, which were known as Olympiads.

After 13 Olympiads, two more races joined the stade as Olympic events: the diaulos (roughly equal to today’s 400-meter race), and the dolichos (a longer-distance race, possibly comparable to the 1,500-meter or 5,000-meter event). The pentathlon (consisting of five events: a foot race, a long jump, discus and javelin throws and a wrestling match) was introduced in 708 B.C., boxing in 688 B.C. and chariot racing in 680 B.C. In 648 B.C., pankration, a combination of boxing and wrestling with virtually no rules, debuted as an Olympic event. Participation in the ancient Olympic Games was initially limited to freeborn male citizens of Greece; there were no women’s events, and married women were prohibited from attending the competition.

Decline and Revival of the Olympic Tradition

After the Roman Empire conquered Greece in the mid-2nd century B.C., the Games continued, but their standards and quality declined. In one notorious example from A.D. 67, the decadent Emperor Nero entered an Olympic chariot race, only to disgrace himself by declaring himself the winner even after he fell off his chariot during the event. In A.D. 393, Emperor Theodosius I, a Christian, called for a ban on all “pagan” festivals, ending the ancient Olympic tradition after nearly 12 centuries.

It would be another 1,500 years before the Games would rise again, largely thanks to the efforts of Baron Pierre de Coubertin (1863-1937) of France. Dedicated to the promotion of physical education, the young baron became inspired by the idea of creating a modern Olympic Games after visiting the ancient Olympic site. In November 1892, at a meeting of the Union des Sports Athlétiques in Paris, Coubertin proposed the idea of reviving the Olympics as an international athletic competition held every four years. Two years later, he got the approval he needed to found the International Olympic Committee (IOC), which would become the governing body of the modern Olympic Games.

The Olympics Through the Years

The first modern Olympics were held in Athens, Greece, in 1896. In the opening ceremony, King Georgios I and a crowd of 60,000 spectators welcomed 280 participants from 13 nations (all male), who would compete in 43 events, including track and field, gymnastics, swimming, wrestling, cycling, tennis, weightlifting, shooting and fencing. All subsequent Olympiads have been numbered even when no Games take place (as in 1916, during World War I, and in 1940 and 1944, during World War II). The official symbol of the modern Games is five interlocking colored rings, representing the continents of North and South America, Asia, Africa, Europe and Australia. The Olympic flag, featuring this symbol on a white background, flew for the first time at the Antwerp Games in 1920.

The Olympics truly took off as an international sporting event after 1924, when the VIII Games were held in Paris. Some 3,000 athletes (with more than 100 women among them) from 44 nations competed that year, and for the first time the Games featured a closing ceremony. The Winter Olympics debuted that year, including such events as figure skating, ice hockey, bobsledding and the biathlon. Eighty years later, when the 2004 Summer Olympics returned to Athens for the first time in more than a century, nearly 11,000 athletes from a record 201 countries competed. In a gesture that joined both ancient and modern Olympic traditions, the shotput competition that year was held at the site of the classical Games in Olympia.